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    Acknowledgements
    i
    Figures Used in This Guide
    iii
    I. Physical Characteristics
    1
    A. Quantities and Units
    1
    B. Near/Far Fields and Plane Waves
    2
    C. Characteristic Impedance
    3
    D. Polarization, Modulation, and Gain
    3
    E. Duty Factor
    4
    II. Generation/Sources
    5
    A. Generation
    5
    B. Sources: Environmental RF Radiation
    5
    C. Occupational Exposure
    5
    1. Dielectric Heaters
    7
    2. Induction Furnaces and Heaters
    7
    3. Microwave Heating
    7
    4. Plasma Processing
    7
    5. Broadcasting
    8
    6. Communications
    8
    7. Radar
    9
    8. Visual Display Terminals (VDTs) and Televisions
    10
    9. Medical Devices
    10
    III. Interactions with Matter
    10
    A. Basic Biophysics
    10
    B. Mechanisms of Interaction
    11
    C. Scattering and Absorption
    11
    D. Geometrical Resonance
    11
    E. Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) and Specific Absorption (SA)
    11
    F. Induced and Contact Currents
    12
    IV. Biological Effects
    12
    A. Behavioral and Other Nervous System Effects
    12
    B. Reproductive and Developmental Effects
    13
    C. Ocular Effects
    13
    D. Cancer
    13
    E. Thermal vs. Nonthermal Effects
    20
    V. Exposure Standards and Guidelines
    20
    A. Exposure Limits
    21
    B. Absorption Envelope
    21
    C. SAR-Based Exposure Limits
    21
    D. Low-Frequency Criteria
    22
    E. Averaging Time
    22
    F. Mixed-Frequency Exposure
    23
    G. Government Standards and Regulations
    23
    VI. Instrumentation
    23
    A. System Elements
    24
    1. Antennas
    24
    2. Detectors
    25
    B. Induced and Contact Current Instruments.
    25
    C. Dosimeters and Personal Monitors
    25
    D. Spectrum Analyzers, Field-Strength Meters, and Frequency Counters
    25
    E. Calibration
    25
    VII. Evaluation and Measurement
    26
    A. Source Information
    26
    B. Estimating Power Density—Numerical Models
    26
    C. Measurement
    27
    1. Instrument Selection
    27
    2. Types of Measurements
    28
    3. Measurement Distance
    28
    4. Spatial Averaging
    28
    5. Measuring Contact and Induced Currents
    29
    6. Time Averaging
    29
    D. Data Reduction
    30
    E. Probe Burnout and Field Zeroing
    30
    F. Conversion of Units
    30
    VIII. Controls
    31
    A. Engineering Controls
    31
    1. Shielding
    31
    2. E- and H-Field Shielding Materials
    31
    3. Shielded Enclosures
    31
    4. Waveguide Below Cutoff
    31
    B. Clothing
    32
    C. RF-Protective Suits
    32
    D. Resonance-Frequency Shift
    32
    E. Administrative Controls
    32
    1. Distance
    32
    2. Duration of Exposure
    33
    3. Warning Signs
    33
    IX. Other Considerations
    33
    X. Program Considerations
    33
    XI. References
    34
    Glossary
    46
    Appendices
    49

    Radio-Frequency and Microwave Radiation, 3rd edition [Nonionizing Radiation Series]


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